OUR PARISH IS CELEBRATING ITS 115th YEAR of practicing the P.N.C.C. ideals of “Truth, Work & Struggle”. The dedicated clergy and parishioners, past and present, of St. Mary’s Parish believe this is an accomplishment of which to be proud. OUR PARISH IS A MEMBER CONGREGATION OF THE POLISH NATIONAL CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SCRANTON, PA. It is our hope and prayer to grow in service to God and community. This commitment manifests itself in regular devotional and prayer life and a greater participation in both ecumenical and community activities. Our masses are celebrated in English on Sunday at 10:00 a.m. followed by refreshments and fellowship in the parish hall. OUR PRIMARY EMPHASIS IS ON THE “PARISH FAMILY”. All who belong sense this family spirit, expressed in a real love and concern for one another. Our pastor makes it a point to know each family on a one-to-one basis with visits to family homes and to the hospitalized. Thus, the spiritual health and vitality of all parishioners and all our friends is supported by both pastor and laity. HOLY COMMUNION. All baptized Christians are welcome at the Table of the Lord. Anyone accepting the Eucharist as the Real Presence of the Body and Blood of the Lord Jesus Christ under the forms of bread and wine and who is properly disposed and wishes to receive the Holy Eucharist is welcome to receive Holy Communion. WE INVITE YOU TO JOIN OUR PARISH FAMILY! If you are looking for a parish and are considering St. Mary’s Parish, feel free to contact our Pastor, Father Tadeusz Czelen. He will introduce you to our family in all its wonderful aspects – a family whose real strength lies in our personal and real relationship to Jesus Christ, our Lord and Savior. We express this faith in our Church throughout liturgy which is Catholic and traditional, shared between priest and laity. We demonstrate this faith in the prayerful material and emotional support we give one another. We share this faith in a Church rooted in Democratic principles and a church constitution giving laity full rights and due process in matters financial, administrative and material.
THIRD SUNDAY OF EASTER, May 5, 2019 10:00AM – † Walter Fedon Easter Dinner after Mass
FOURTH SUNDAY OF EASTER, May 12, 2019 10:00AM – † Marianna Janiszewska (2nd Anniversary) Day of prayers for the living or the deceased Mothers. Coffee and cake after Mass
FIFTH SUNDAY OF EASTER, May 19, 2019 10:00AM – † Władysław, Józef, Julia First Communion SIXTH SUNDAY OF LENT, May 26, 2019 10:00AM – † Zofia, Wojciech
Sunday Masses as announced. Examples of the Mass intention are: for the Sick, in remembrance of the faithful departed (especially parents, grandparents, relatives…), to ask God’s Grace, Birthdays and Anniversaries (…) To make arrangements, please contact Father Czelen. Sacrament of Baptism – Arrangements should be made at least two weeks prior the ceremony. Only practicing Christians should be chosen as godparents. Sacrament of Matrimony – Arrangements should be made at least six months in advance. Emergencies, Sickness and deaths – please contact to the rectory immediately.
Receiving the Holy Eucharist – those who believe in the true presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist are invited to partake of this Holy Sacrament. It is the practice of the PNCC to distribute the Holy Eucharist through the method of intinction. The Body and Blood of Christ are placed on the tongue, not in the hand. Sacrament of the sick – If there is anyone at home who cannot get to Mass and the Sacraments because of illness or age, please call the parish office at anytime to request the Sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick.
May 01 – St. Philip & James, Apostles The Apostle Philip was one of Christ’s first disciples, called soon after his Master’s baptism in the Jordan. The fourth Gospel gives the following detail: “The next day Jesus was about to leave for Galilee, and He found Philip. And Jesus said to him: Follow Me. Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the town of Andrew and Peter. Philip found Nathanael, and said to him: We have found Him of whom Moses in the Law and the Prophets wrote, Jesus the Son of Joseph of Nazareth. And Nathanael said to him: Can anything good come out of Nazareth? Philip said to him: Come and see” (John 1:43ff). Patron: Hatters; Luxembourg; pastry chefs; Uruguay. Symbols: basket; basket and Tau cross or letter Tau; two or three loaves and a cross; patriarchal cross and spear; knotted cross; broken idols; inverted cross; tall column; dragon; carpenter’s square and cross; long staff and spear; tall cross and book. Often portrayed as: Elderly bearded man holding a basket of loaves and a cross which is often t-shaped; elderly man casting a devil from the idol of Mars; elderly man crucified on a tall cross; elderly man holding loaves and fishes; elderly man with a dragon nearby; elderly man with a loaf and book; elderly man with a snake nearby; loaves of bread; man baptizing the Ethiopian eunuch; man holding a book or scroll reading descendit ad inferna; with Saint Andrew.
St. James the Less St. James the Less, a brother of the Apostle Jude, was of Cana of Galilee. He is the author of one of the Catholic Epistles in the New Testament. He was favored by an appearance of the Risen Christ (I Cor. 15:7). After the dispersion of the Apostles he was made Bishop of Jerusalem. He was visited by St. Paul (Gal. 1:19). He spoke after Peter at the meeting of the Apostles (Acts 15:13). When he refused to deny the Divinity of Christ, the Jews cast him down from the terrace of the temple and clubbed him to death. The Breviary contains a very moving description of his death. “When he was ninety-six years old and had governed the Church for thirty years in a most holy manner, the Jews sought to stone him, then took him to the pinnacle of the temple and cast him off headlong. As he lay there half dead, with legs broken by the fall, he lifted his hands toward heaven and prayed to God for the salvation of his enemies, saying: Lord, forgive them for they know not what they do! While the apostle was still praying, a fuller struck his head a mortal blow.” His relics now rest next to those of St. Philip in the church of the Holy Apostles in Rome.
May 03 – Polish Constitution Day Year after year, The Polish community, whether at home or abroad, gathers together to commemorate the 3rd of May Constitution and to honor all the great minds who took part in the creation of this revolutionary document. They celebrate because the constitution symbolizes the spiritual and moral renovation of the Polish nation after a long period of chaos and disorder. They celebrate because the constitution established a democratic philosophy of humanitarianism and tolerance, including entire liberty to all people. And, most of all, they celebrate because the 3rd of May Constitution is not only a milestone in the Polish political and social history, but it is also a landmark in the European tradition, being the second constitution ever written in the world, and a first on the European soil
May 03 – Finding of the Holy Cross After the victory Constantine gained through the power of the Cross which he had seen in the heavens, and whose sign he reproduced in the Labarum, St. Helena, his mother, went to Jerusalem to try to find the true Cross. At the beginning of the second century, Hadrian had Calvary and the Holy Sepulchre covered over with earth, the top of which became a terrace of 100 feet in length, where were erected a statue of Jupiter and a temple of Venus. The Empress had them razed to the ground, and dug up. The laborers found the nails and three crosses. The miraculous cure of a woman authenticated the sacred tree, to which we owe “life, salvation and resurrection”.
St. Helena divided the precious wood in three. One part was deposited in Rome in the church of Holy Cross in Jerusalem. The second in Constantinople and the third in Jerusalem. This last relic having been carried off by the Persians and recovered by Heraclius, this emperor solemnly brought it back to Jerusalem on May 3rd, 628.
May 10 – Ascension of our Lord The Ascension of Our Lord, which occurred 40 days after Jesus Christ rose from the dead on Easter, is the final act of our redemption that Christ began on Good Friday. On this day, the risen Christ, in the sight of His apostles, ascended bodily into Heaven (Luke 24:51; Mark 16:19; Acts 1:9-11).
The reality of Christ’s Ascension is so important that the creeds (the basic statements of belief) of Christianity all affirm, in the words of the Apostles’ Creed, that “He ascended into heaven, sits at the right hand of God the Father almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead.” The denial of the Ascension is as grave a departure from Christian teaching as is denial of Christ’s Resurrection.
Christ’s bodily Ascension foreshadows our own entrance into Heaven not simply as souls, after our death, but as glorified bodies, after the resurrection of the dead at the Final Judgment. In redeeming mankind, Christ not only offered salvation to our souls but began the restoration of the material world itself to the glory that God intended before Adam’s fall.
The Feast of the Ascension marks the beginning of the first novena, or nine days of prayer. Before His Ascension, Christ promised to send the Holy Spirit to His apostles. Their prayer for the coming of the Holy Spirit, which began on Ascension Thursday, ended with the descent of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost Sunday, ten days later.
Today, Catholics recall that first novena by praying the Novena to the Holy Ghost between Ascension and Pentecost, asking for the gifts of the Holy Spirit and the fruits of the Holy Spirit.
May 10 – 67th Anniversary Martyrdom of Bishop Joseph Padewski Bishop Padewski was born February 18, 1894 in Antoniów, a small farming village near Radom in Poland. He emigrated to the United States in 1913 and moved to Detroit, Michigan. In Detroit he came into contact with the Polish National Catholic Church. In 1916 he entered the PNCC Seminary. He was ordained to the priesthood on December 16, 1919 by Prime Bishop Francis Hodur. He celebrated his first mass at the Church of the Good Shepherd in Plymouth, Pennsylvania.
In 1931 Father Padewski was sent to Poland as part of the PNCC mission of evangelization in Poland and to work on consolidating the structures of the PNCC (PNKK) in Poland. He was appointed assistant to Bishop Leon Grochowski.
In January 1933 at a meeting of the Supreme Council of the PNCC in Poland attended by Bishop Hodur, Father Padewski was appointed administrator of the PNCC in Poland. At the Second Synod of the PNCC in Poland in April 1935 Father Padewski was elected Bishop. Father Padewski was elevated to the Episcopacy on August 26, 1936 in Scranton.
Before the Second World War the PNCC had 100,000 members, 52 parishes, 12 affiliate churches, and 52 priests in Poland.
On September 1, 1939 Nazi Germany invaded Poland from the west and the Soviet Union invaded from the east. The losses to Poland and to the Church in Poland during the Nazi German and Soviet occupation were devastating. Over 6 million Poles died including 3 million Polish citizens of the Jewish faith. Many priests were sent to concentration camps. In all, 28% of PNCC priests were killed.
In part, Bishop Padewski was able to save the church from complete liquidation by bringing the church under the control of the Old Catholic Church’s Bishop in Bonn, Erwin Kreuzer.
In 1942 Bishop Padewski was arrested by the Nazis and was held at the Montelupich prison in Krakow. He was then transferred to the Tittmoning POW Camp in Germany where he was held for 18 months. Through the intervention of the Swiss Red Cross he was freed and returned to the United States in March 1944.
Between 1944 and 1946 Bishop Padewski served as pastor of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Czestochowa Church in Albany, New York.
Bishop Padewski returned to Poland on February 20, 1946 to resume his duties as Bishop of the Polish branch of the PNCC.
Shortly after his return, the Soviet Union completed its takeover of Poland and asserted Communist control. In this atmosphere of Stalinist terror, Bishop Padewski was arrested by the Communist Secret Police (UB) in Warsaw and was held at their prison on Rakowieckiej Street.
Bishop Padewski died on May 10, 1951 as a result of secret police questioning and maltreatment.
May 12 – Mother’s Day During May as we celebrate the “mother of God,” we also celebrate all of the mothers who are dear to us, both those still with us and those called to their eternal reward. On the second Sunday of May, special prayers will be offered during the Mass for mothers and all of the good and holy work that they do. Mothers are often the priests of a child’s first church, the family in which prayers are taught, the first stories of Jesus shared, and the lifelong lessons of conscience are begun. On this special day we give voice to the too often unsaid thanks which mothers are due.
The gift of motherhood is the most precious gift that God himself bestows on those who answer this very special call and vocation. May Mary, the mother of God and the mother of our Lord Jesus Christ watch and bless all of our mothers.
Let us all honor every mother not only today but every day.
Let us make every day – a Mother’s Day. Following Mass, the members of the Woman’s Society invite the mothers of our parish and their guests, who are the rest of us, to a traditional coffee and cake in our parish hall.
Mother’s Day prayer
Almighty and merciful God and most gracious Father, You gave us our mothers for the rearing of each new generation and the fulfillment of Your purposes on earth. You poured into their hearts the great graces of faith, love and sacrifice, and chose them to be instrument of Your holy and noble aims. On this day, dedicated to the honor of our mothers, we ask that You would bless all the mothers of our congregation. Empower them to lovingly fulfill the obligations You have given them, as they look to the example of Mary, the Blessed Mother of Jesus, and to the lives of all devoted and holy women. We ask this through our Lord, Jesus Christ, Your Son, Who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit, One God forever and ever. Amen.
Mothers Day Quotes
Your mother bore you for 9 months, She watched her feet swell, she struggled to climb stairs, She got breathless quick, she bore excruciating pain, She suffered many sleepless nights, She became your nurse, your chef, your teacher, your cleaner, your launderette, your friend. She struggled for you, but not did she see it as a struggle, Not once did she develop regrets after all this … How dare you say even ”uff” to her … I love my mother beyond limit Do you … ? ? ?
Mother– Son, What If I Lose My Vision? Son – I’ll Take You To The Best Eye Hospital in The Country. Mother – And What If I Don’t Get My Vision Cured There? Son – I’ll Take You To The Best Eye Hospital in The World Mother– If they are still unable to treat me then ? Son – I will take care of u for Life time Mother. Mother – Love You son Son– Mum, What If I Lose My Vision? Mother – I’ll Give My Eyes To You A mother is she who can take the place of all others , but whose place no one else can take .
MAMA, Thank you…
For SHARING me LIFE.
For GIVING me LOVE.
For being FORGIVING.
For being THE BEST.
And For showing me
GOD, being the greatest.
I love you Mama. Thank you!
Dear Mother-in-law, “Don’t teach me how 2 handle my children, I’m living with one of yours & he needs a lot of improvement”. I love you and Thank you!
May 23 – Jerome Savonarola (m. 1498) The PNCC Seminary is named the Savonarola Theological Seminary. The organizer and first Prime Bishop of the PNCC, Francis Hodur, held great admiration for Savonarola’s work in attempting to reform the Roman Catholic Church. At 7:30pm on Sunday, October 2, 1898 then Father Hodur lectured on the life of Savonarola, recalling that Savonarola was burned at the stake in 1498. Father Hodur proceeded to burn the writ of excommunication he had received from the Roman Church, and had the ashes of the document tossed into a stream below the Cathedral parish in Scranton. The Savonarola Theological Seminary is an institution of higher learning founded and sponsored by the PNCC. It offers men an opportunity to achieve a higher education in the liberal arts, philosophy, Biblical studies, theology, and guidance in their vocation to become priests of the PNCC in service to God and His people. Girolamo Savonarola (1452–1498) was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence, and known for his prophecies of civic glory and calls for Christian renewal. He denounced clerical corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of the poor. He prophesied the coming of a biblical flood and a new Cyrus from the north who would reform the Church. This seemed confirmed when Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and threatened Florence. While Savonarola intervened with the king, the Florentines expelled the ruling Medici and, at the friar’s urging, established a popular republic. Declaring that Florence would be the New Jerusalem, the world center of Christianity and “richer, more powerful, more glorious than ever”, he instituted a puritanical campaign, enlisting the active help of Florentine youth.
In 1495 when Florence refused to join Pope Alexander VI’s Holy League against the French, Savonarola was summoned to Rome. He disobeyed and further defied the pope by preaching under a ban, highlighting his campaign for reform with processions, bonfires of the vanities, and pious theatricals. In retaliation, the Pope excommunicated him and threatened to place the city under an interdict. A trial by fire proposed by a rival Florentine preacher to test Savonarola’s divine mandate was a fiasco and popular opinion turned against him. Savonarola and two lieutenants were imprisoned. Under torture, Savonarola confessed that he had invented his visions and prophecies. On May 23, 1498, the three friars were condemned, hanged and burned in the main square of Florence. Savonarola’s devotees, the Piagnoni, kept his cause of republican freedom and religious reform alive well into the next century, although the Medici – restored to power with the help of the papacy – eventually broke the movement.
COMMEMORATING THE FAITHFUL DEPARTED IN THE ST. MARY`S CEMETERY (PERPETUAL CARE): We have been asked to keep the following people in our prayers: Michael Prach , Helena & Mikołaj Benczarski, Christina Walton, Helen Chmielowiec, Walter & Stella Maciurzynski, Konstanty Jackiewicz, Very Rev. Waclaw Cwieka, Christine Maciurzynski, Marianna Janiszewska, Anne & Marion Tylipski, Jessie Chorniuk, Walter Fedon, Frank Payonk, Veronika Sosnowski
BIRTHDAYS & ANNIVERSARIES May Birthdays: Pawluk Lynda /06/, Domiter Maggie /07/, Skrypetz Stan /07/, Bidowski Stanley /08/, Hangdaan Jondrei /19/, Wolejszo Helena /21/, Nykoluk Epiatacia /23/, Markiewicz Zbigniew /26/, Skrypetz Cheryl /30/, Gryz Sofia /31/ May Wedding Anniversaries: Nykoluk Ronald & Epitacia /03/, Markiewicz Zbigniew & Grazyna /16/, Rev. Czelen Tadeusz & Wieslawa /18/, Hangdaan John & Remedios /20/, Mikolajczyk Martin & Christine /23/
DAILY INTERCESSION FOR OUR SICK AND HOMEBOUND In every bulletin a list of sick parishioners is published to be included in daily prayers. While we all may not be able to visit in person, cards and phone calls are a way to uplift these parishioners. The following are our brothers and sisters of St. Mary`s who are currently homebound, suffering from chronic illness, in recovery or in need of special prayers. Especially: Sofia Wolejszo, Chantalle Witon, Helena Wolejszo, Lloyd Mazur, Myron Mischuk, Bernice Payonk, Rose Budzinski, Sofia Gryz, Halina and Edward Mandat, Janina Dzwonek, Mary Skrypetz, Patricia and Claude Caya, Lorraine Fedon, Helen Krokosh, Josie Jackiewicz, Mary Golembioski, Emily Wasney.
PRAYER FOR THE SICK
Dear God. Hear our prayers for the sick members of our community and for all who are in special need at this time. Amid mental and physical suffering, may they find consolation in Your healing presence. Show Your mercy as You close wounds, cure illness, make broken bodies whole and free downcast spirits. May these special people find lasting health and deliverance, and with them, may we thank You for all Your gifts. We ask this through the Lord Jesus who healed those who believed. Amen.
SUPPORT THE FUTURE OF OUR PARISH A bequest to St. Mary’s Parish may be the most meaningful charitable gift you will ever make. Thank you to everyone for their generous donations to the Parish.
MASS INTENTIONS An individual may ask a priest to offer a Mass for several reasons: for example, in thanksgiving, for the intentions of another person (such as on a birthday), or, as is most common, for the repose of the soul of someone who has died. Requesting a Mass is a special way of remembering a loved one, celebrating an anniversary, making an act of thanksgiving, offering your prayer intentions before God or simply sharing in the feasts and seasons of the Church year. If you would like to have a Mass celebrated for a special request, on behalf of a family member, a friend, or a deceased loved one, you are encouraged to contact Fr. Czelen for scheduling the Mass.
OUR PARISH CEMETERY For those who do not know, our parish has a cemetery located at 360 McIvor Ave. This beautiful setting is replete with the history and memory of those who served our parish and worshiped with us. If you and your family are at the stage of pre planning for your Christian funeral and other matters, please consider a resting place in our Catholic Cemetery. If you have questions in relation to these issues, please see Fr. Czelen.
MOTHER’S DAY MASS INTENTIONS The Mother’s Day is coming (May 12, 2019). If you would like to mention your Mother’s Name (living or the deceased) in the intention of the Mass on that day please contact Fr. Czelen.
WHAT ATTRACTS PEOPLE TO CHURCH? Why do people select a particular church? A convenient location? Yes. A good speaker in the pulpit? Yes. Inspiring music? Yes. An attractive building? Yes.
But a more essential element in attracting visitors, newcomers and prospective members is friendliness — both in the pew and throughout the community.
Where there is a warm, dynamic congregation with an enthusiasm that’s contagious, visitors will usually be found, and will return.
A church can buy many advantages with money, such as nice buildings, trained leadership, effective advertising and an abundance of supplies for spiritual and social use. But old-fashioned friendliness, of which the world is sorely in need, can’t be purchased with money. It comes only from the hearts of dedicated people who love God and enjoy helping others feel at home in their church.
May: The Month of the Blessed Virgin Mary
In polish tradition the month of May is the month which the piety of the faithful has especially dedicated to Our Blessed Lady, and it is the occasion for a moving tribute of faith and love which Polish National Catholics pay to the Queen of Heaven. During this month Christians, both in church and in the privacy of the home, offer up to Mary from their hearts an especially fervent and loving homage of prayer and veneration.
The Litany of the Blessed Virgin – also called the Litany of Loreto – is one of the many Marian litanies, or praises of Mary, composed during the Middle Ages.
Its forty-nine titles and invocations set before us Mary’s exalted privileges, her holiness of life, her amiability and power, her motherly spirit and queenly majesty. Reflection on the titles of the litany, therefore, will unfold before us a magnificent picture of our heavenly Mother, even though we know little about her life.
Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.
Christ, hear us.
Christ, graciously hear us.
God, the Father of Heaven, have mercy on us.
God the Son, Redeemer of the world,have mercy on us.
God the Holy Spirit, have mercy on us.
Holy Trinity, One God, have mercy on us.
Holy Mary, pray for us.
Holy Mother of God, pray for us.
Holy Virgin of virgins, pray for us.
Mother of Christ, pray for us.
Mother of divine grace, pray for us.
Mother most pure, pray for us.
Mother most chaste, pray for us.
Mother inviolate, pray for us.
Mother undefiled, pray for us.
Mother most amiable, pray for us.
Mother most admirable, pray for us.
Mother of good counsel, pray for us.
Mother of our Creator, pray for us.
Mother of our Savior, pray for us.
Virgin most prudent, pray for us.
Virgin most venerable, pray for us.
Virgin most renowned, pray for us.
Virgin most powerful, pray for us.
Virgin most merciful, pray for us.
Virgin most faithful, pray for us.
Mirror of justice, pray for us.
Seat of wisdom, pray for us.
Cause of our joy, pray for us.
Spiritual vessel, pray for us.
Vessel of honor, pray for us.
Singular vessel of devotion, pray for us.
Mystical rose, pray for us.
Tower of David, pray for us.
Tower of ivory, pray for us.
House of gold, pray for us.
Ark of the covenant, pray for us.
Gate of heaven, pray for us.
Morning star, pray for us.
Health of the sick, pray for us.
Refuge of sinners, pray for us.
Comforter of the afflicted, Help of Christians, pray for us.
Queen of Angels, pray for us.
Queen of Patriarchs, pray for us.
Queen of Prophets, pray for us.
Queen of Apostles, pray for us.
Queen of Martyrs, pray for us.
Queen of Confessors, pray for us.
Queen of Virgins, pray for us.
Queen of all Saints, pray for us.
Queen conceived without original sin, pray for us.
Queen assumed into heaven, pray for us.
Queen of the most holy Rosary, pray for us.
Queen of Peace, pray for us.
Polish Queen, pray for us.
Lamb of God, who take away the sins of the world, spare us, O Lord!
Lamb of God, who take away the sins of the world, graciously hear us, O Lord!
Lamb of God, who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us!
V. Pray for us, O holy Mother of God. R. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.
Let us pray. Grant, we beg you, O Lord God, that we your servants, may enjoy lasting health of mind and body, and by the glorious intercession of the Blessed Mary, ever Virgin, be delivered from present sorrow and enter into the joy of eternal happiness. Through Christ our Lord. R. Amen.
Honoring Mary is part of our Polish Consciousness
As Poles and Polish Canadians, our love and respect for the Blessed Mother is as much a part of our history as it is of our faith. An icon of Poland for centuries, the Black Madonna of Częstochowa defines a Pole as clearly as the white eagle or Polish flag.
The country’s most beloved hymn are devoted to Mary. “Bogurodzica” (Mother of God”) is the oldest song with Polish words and the second oldest example of the written Polish language. This hymn, originated most probably in the 13th century, while its earliest extant sources date back to the 15th century.
“Bogurodzica” is a religious hymn, a simple prayer for personal happiness on earth and for blessed life in heaven. Honoring Mary is part of our Polish consciousness. For centuries, Poles have turned to the Virgin in prayer and song for protection from enemies. This month, as Poles, we observe Mary’s role in our faith and culture. This is also the month that as Canadians, we observe the tradition of Mother’s Day. To love our mothers is to love the Mother, and that is just one way to repay each for all they have given us.